Kerala Voluntary Health Services v. Union of India, et al.
Kerala Voluntary Health Services (Kerala VHS) sued the Union of India, et al. to enforce the provisions of India's omnibus tobacco control law, COTPA. Kerala VHS claimed that the Union of India, et al. had been negligent in enforcing COTPA as evidenced by the tobacco industry's facilitating smoking in films and engaging in sale of tobacco near educational facilities. The Court observed that Indian Constitution's right to freedom of speech and expression is circumscribed by the Constitution's right to life and found that provisions of COTPA had been violated. To remedy these violations, the Court imposed measures for compliance and appropriate implementation mechanisms for such measures.