Scroll To Top
Home \Legislation \  Compare Countries

Compare Countries

Quickly view a country’s tobacco control law status or compare it to the status of several countries at once.

Select a Policy
Choose Countries to Compare
Term FCTC-Based Definition
Workplace View Definition
An area, permanent or temporary, in which a person performs duties of employment or work, regardless of whether the work is done for compensation or on a voluntary basis, and includes private offices, common areas and any other area which generally is used or frequented during the course of employment or work. (FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines para. 20)
Not Defined
No
Analysis
The law does not contain a definition of “workplace.” However, a definition is not technically necessary for interpretation of the law because the term “workplace” is not used.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Public Transport View Definition
Any vehicle used for the carriage of members of the public, usually for reward or commercial gain. (FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines para. 22)
Defined
Yes
Analysis
The definition of “public transport” provided in the regulations aligns with the definition of “public transport” provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Second Hand Smoke (or similar term) View Definition
The smoke emitted from the burning end of a cigarette or from other tobacco products usually in combination with the smoke exhaled by the smoker. (FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines para. 15)
Not Defined
No
Analysis
Although this term is not defined, a definition is not strictly necessary because the term is not used in the law. The law's smoke free measures provide that “no person shall smoke” in public places, rather than, for example, “no person shall be exposed to second hand smoke in enclosed public places.”
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Smoking or Smoke View Definition
Being in possession or control of a lit tobacco product regardless of whether the smoke is being actively inhaled or exhaled. (FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines para. 17)
Defined
Yes
Analysis
The definition of “smoking” in the law aligns with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Public Place View Definition
An area, permanent or temporary, that is accessible to the general public or for collective use by the general public regardless of ownership or right of access. (FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines para. 18)
Not Defined
No
Analysis
The law does not contain a definition of the term “public place.” Undefined key terms can create ambiguity, subjective interpretation, loopholes in coverage and may undermine the application of other substantive provisions of a law. For example, if it is not clear what is considered “public place,” this may impair the ability of the law to fulfill FCTC Art. 8 requirements. A definition of “public place” should be provided in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Tobacco Product View Definition
Any product entirely or partly made of the leaf tobacco as a raw material which is manufactured to be used for smoking, sucking, chewing, or snuffing. (FCTC Art. 1(f))
Defined
Yes
Analysis
The definition of “tobacco and tobacco product” in the law aligns with the definition provided in FCTC Art. 1.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Indoor or Enclosed View Definition
Any space covered by a roof or enclosed by one or more walls or sides, regardless of the type of material used for the roof, walls or sides, and regardless of whether the structure is permanent or temporary. (FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines para. 19)
Not Defined
No
Analysis
The terms “indoor” or “enclosed” are not defined in the law. A definition for “indoor” or “enclosed” is not technically necessary for interpretation of the law because the law does not use the terms “indoor” or “enclosed” when describing those places that are smoke free. However, in order to align with the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines, requiring smoke free “indoor” public places and workplaces, a definition of “indoor” or “enclosed” should be provided, in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
All indoor workplaces
Smoking is Restricted
“Smoking is Restricted”: Smoking is restricted in some way in the specified place or category of places. Restrictions could take one of the following forms: (1) smoking is restricted , under the national law, to “smoking rooms”, “smoking areas”, and/or during specified times in the specified place or category of places; (2) under the national law(s), smoking is restricted or prohibited in some types of places, within the category but not in all types of places within the category; or (3) where a country regulates public smoking primarily at the sub-national level, smoking is restricted or prohibited in the specified place or category of places in some sub-national jurisdictions but not in other sub-national jurisdictions.
Analysis

The law generally prohibits smoking in public places and does not address “workplaces” specifically. Instead, the law includes a non-exhaustive list of public places, most of which are also workplaces. However, designated smoking areas are permitted in a limited number of places – hotels and other lodging, recreation center, bars, and discotheques. Therefore, because these places are workplaces for some, the regulatory status “Smoking is Restricted” is given.

The law does not align with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to indoor workplaces. To align with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines, the law should prohibit smoking in all indoor workplaces.

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
All indoor public places
Smoking is Restricted
“Smoking is Restricted”: Smoking is restricted in some way in the specified place or category of places. Restrictions could take one of the following forms: (1) smoking is restricted , under the national law, to “smoking rooms”, “smoking areas”, and/or during specified times in the specified place or category of places; (2) under the national law(s), smoking is restricted or prohibited in some types of places, within the category but not in all types of places within the category; or (3) where a country regulates public smoking primarily at the sub-national level, smoking is restricted or prohibited in the specified place or category of places in some sub-national jurisdictions but not in other sub-national jurisdictions.
Analysis

The law generally prohibits smoking in public places, but permits designated smoking areas in a limited number of places – hotels and other lodging, recreation center, bars, and discotheques. Therefore, the regulatory status “Smoking is Restricted” is given.

The law does not align with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to indoor public places. To align with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines, the law should prohibit smoking in all indoor workplaces. In addition, a definition of “public place” should be provided in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
All public transport
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis

The law prohibits smoking in all public transportation, without exception. The term “public transport” is defined in the regulations as including “buses, taxis and aircrafts or such similar transport.” This is interpreted as including all forms of public transport. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to public transport.

Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Government facilities
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes “all offices including those in the private sector” in the non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. This is interpreted as prohibiting smoking in all offices owned or operated by the government. The list of places also includes facilities such as museums and educational and health facilities, which may be government operated. Together, these provisions are interpreted as banning smoking in all government facilities. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to government facilities. For greater clarity, the law should define the term “public place” in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Hospitals
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes health institutions in the non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. Therefore, smoking is prohibited in hospitals. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to hospitals. For greater clarity, the law should define the term “public place” in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Residential healthcare facilities - public areas
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes health institutions in the non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. Therefore, smoking is prohibited in public areas of residential healthcare facilities. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to public areas of residential healthcare facilities. For greater clarity, the law should define the term “public place” in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Residential healthcare facilities - patient rooms
Uncertain
“Uncertain”: The smoke free status of the place is uncertain due to lack of clarity in the law or inability to obtain all relevant laws.
Analysis
The law does not specifically address patient rooms in residential healthcare facilities. The law generally prohibits smoking in public places and includes “health institutions” in a non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. However, because patient rooms are not technically public places, it is uncertain whether patient rooms are meant to be covered under the ban on smoking in health institutions. Although they are workplaces for some, workplaces are not specifically addressed under the law (as opposed to “offices,” which are addressed). Therefore, the regulatory status “Uncertain” is given. To align with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines, the law should expressly prohibit smoking in patient rooms in residential healthcare facilities.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Non-residential healthcare facilities
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes health institutions in the non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. Therefore, smoking is prohibited in non-residential healthcare facilities. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to non-residential healthcare facilities. For greater clarity, the law should define the term “public place” in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Childcare facilities/preschools
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes educational institutions in the non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. Therefore, smoking is prohibited in childcare facilities and preschools. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to childcare facilities and preschools. For greater clarity, the law should define the term “public place” in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Primary and secondary schools
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes educational institutions in the non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. Therefore, smoking is prohibited in primary and secondary schools. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to primary and secondary schools. For greater clarity, the law should define the term “public place” in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Universities/vocational facilities
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes educational institutions and training centers in the non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. Therefore, smoking is prohibited in universities and vocational facilities. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to universities and vocational facilities. For greater clarity, the law should define the term “public place” in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Shops
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes “all shops,” commercial centers, supermarkets, and shopping complexes in the non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. Therefore, smoking is prohibited in all shops. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to shops. For greater clarity, the law should define the term “public place” in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Cultural facilities
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes museums, exhibition halls, theaters, and public gathering spaces for festivals and traditional celebrations in the non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. Therefore, the law is interpreted as prohibiting smoking in all cultural facilities. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to cultural facilities. For greater clarity, the law should define the term “public place” in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Indoor stadium/arenas
Smoking is Restricted
“Smoking is Restricted”: Smoking is restricted in some way in the specified place or category of places. Restrictions could take one of the following forms: (1) smoking is restricted , under the national law, to “smoking rooms”, “smoking areas”, and/or during specified times in the specified place or category of places; (2) under the national law(s), smoking is restricted or prohibited in some types of places, within the category but not in all types of places within the category; or (3) where a country regulates public smoking primarily at the sub-national level, smoking is restricted or prohibited in the specified place or category of places in some sub-national jurisdictions but not in other sub-national jurisdictions.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes “recreation centers,” including health centers, sports and game centers, and playing fields, in the non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. However, under the Tobacco Control Rules and Regulations 2013, the person-in-charge of a recreation center may designate certain areas for smoking. These areas are subject to certain ventilation and signage requirements. Designated smoking areas are permitted but not required.

The law does not align with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to indoor stadiums and arenas because it permits the person-in-charge of the premises to designate certain areas for smoking. To align with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines, the law should completely prohibit smoking in indoor stadiums and arenas, removing the possibility of designated smoking areas. In addition, for greater clarity, the law should define the term “public place” in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Restaurants
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes restaurants in the non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to restaurants. For greater clarity, the law should define the term “public place” in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Bars/pubs/nightclubs
Smoking is Restricted
“Smoking is Restricted”: Smoking is restricted in some way in the specified place or category of places. Restrictions could take one of the following forms: (1) smoking is restricted , under the national law, to “smoking rooms”, “smoking areas”, and/or during specified times in the specified place or category of places; (2) under the national law(s), smoking is restricted or prohibited in some types of places, within the category but not in all types of places within the category; or (3) where a country regulates public smoking primarily at the sub-national level, smoking is restricted or prohibited in the specified place or category of places in some sub-national jurisdictions but not in other sub-national jurisdictions.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes bars, clubs, discotheques, and snooker rooms in the non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. However, under the Bhutan Narcotic Control Agency’s Public Notification No. 7345, the person-in-charge of a bar or discotheque may designate certain areas for smoking. These areas are subject to certain ventilation and signage requirements.

The law does not align with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to bars, pubs, and nightclubs because it permits the person in charge of the premises to designate certain areas for smoking. To align with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines, the law should completely prohibit smoking in bars, pubs, and nightclubs, removing the possibility of designated smoking areas. In addition, for greater clarity, the law should define the term “public place” in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Casinos
N/A
Not Applicable
Analysis
It is our understanding that gambling is illegal in Bhutan and, therefore, casinos do not exist.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Hotels/lodging - public areas
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes “lobbies and places to which the public have access in hotels, motels, guest houses, inns and lodging” in the non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. Therefore, smoking is prohibited in all public areas of hotels and lodging. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to public areas of hotels and lodging. For greater clarity, the law should define the term “public place” in accordance with the definition provided in the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Hotels/lodgings - guest rooms
Smoking is Restricted
“Smoking is Restricted”: Smoking is restricted in some way in the specified place or category of places. Restrictions could take one of the following forms: (1) smoking is restricted , under the national law, to “smoking rooms”, “smoking areas”, and/or during specified times in the specified place or category of places; (2) under the national law(s), smoking is restricted or prohibited in some types of places, within the category but not in all types of places within the category; or (3) where a country regulates public smoking primarily at the sub-national level, smoking is restricted or prohibited in the specified place or category of places in some sub-national jurisdictions but not in other sub-national jurisdictions.
Analysis
The law generally prohibits smoking in public places. However, the law permits the person-in-charge of hotels, motels, guest houses, inns, and other lodging to designate certain floors or rooms for smoking. The person-in-charge may choose to have the entire premises, all guest rooms included, be 100% smoke free. The law does not align with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect guest rooms in hotels and other lodging because it permits the person-in-charge of the premises to designate certain floors or rooms for smoking. To align with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines, the law should completely prohibit smoking in guest rooms in hotels and other lodging.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Prisons/detention facilities - public areas
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law does not address smoking in prisons or detention facilities specifically. Instead, the law generally prohibits smoking in public places and then provides a non-exhaustive list of places where smoking is prohibited. Because this list is non-exhaustive, the law is interpreted as prohibiting smoking in public areas of prisons and detention facilities. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to public areas of prisons and detention facilities.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Trains, buses and other shared ground transportation other than taxis
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law prohibits smoking in all public transportation. The term “public transport” is defined in the regulations as including buses and “such similar transport.” Therefore, smoking is prohibited on trains, buses, and other forms of shared ground transportation. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to trains, buses, and other shared ground transportation.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Taxis (for-hire vehicle)
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law prohibits smoking in all public transportation, specifically including taxis. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to taxis.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Commercial aircraft
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law prohibits smoking in all public transportation, specifically including aircraft used for passenger transport. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to commercial aircraft.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Commercial watercraft
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law prohibits smoking in all public transportation. The term “public transport” is defined in the regulations as including “buses, taxis and aircrafts or such similar transport.” This is interpreted as including commercial watercraft. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to commercial watercraft.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Public transport facilities (waiting areas for mass transit)
100% Smoke Free
“100% Smoke Free”: 100% smoke free environment throughtout the entire premises of the listed place. "Smoking rooms" and "smoking areas" are not permitted.
Analysis
The law prohibits smoking in “public gathering spaces.” Although this term is not defined, the law specifically includes bus stands, taxi stands, and airports as examples of public gathering spaces where smoking is prohibited. Therefore, the law is interpreted as prohibiting smoking in all public transport facilities. The law aligns with FCTC Art. 8 and the FCTC Art. 8 Guidelines with respect to public transport facilities.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Does the law require any outdoor or quasi-outdoor spaces to be smoke free or restrict smoking in any way?
Yes
Yes
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Post signs
Yes
Yes
Analysis
The law imposes a duty to post no-smoking signs on the person in charge of the premises. The law defines “person-in-charge” as “owner, manager, supervisor or a person responsible for the operation of the public place or public transport.” The notice must be written in both Dzongkha and English and must be posted at in a prominent place. Similarly, signs are required to indicate whether an area, room, or floor has been designated for smoking (where permitted). Failure to display the required signs is punishable by a fine of Nu. 10,000 (Bhutanese ngultrum) for each incident. Offenders have fourteen working days in which to pay the fine to the authorized agency.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Remove ashtrays
No
No
Analysis
The law does not impose a duty on business owners, employers, or supervisors to remove ashtrays from the premises.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Steps to require a person to stop smoking (e.g., warn, discontinue service, call authorities)
Yes
Yes
Analysis
The law requires that the person in charge of the premises supervises compliance with the smoking ban and take steps to ensure that no person smokes in the premises. The person in charge is to ask the offending person to refrain from smoking, require the offending person to leave the premises if s/he continues to smoke, and to contact law enforcement when necessary. Failure to comply with these duties is punishable by a fine of Nu. 10,000 (Bhutanese ngultrum) for each incident. Offenders have fourteen working days in which to pay the fine to the authorized agency.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not to smoke where prohibited
Yes
Yes
Analysis
Individuals guilty of smoking in a no-smoking area are subject to a fine of Nu. 500 (Bhutanese ngultrum) for each offense. If the offender cannot pay the fine on the spot, he or she must pay the fine to the authorized agency within twenty-four hours. In addition, the individual must produce proof of the payment of import duty and tax because tobacco products may not be sold in Bhutan and may only be imported for personal use, subject to the relevant import duties and taxes. There are further fines for these violations.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Other
Yes
Yes
Analysis
Where smoking rooms or areas are permitted (hotels and other lodging, recreation centers), the person in charge of the premises must either clearly designate the smoking area or declare the entire premises as smoke free. However, no smoking areas may be set aside if the premises is located within a government or private institution or office. Smoking areas must be clearly marked with signs. Failure to comply with these duties is punishable by a fine of Nu. 10,000 (Bhutanese ngultrum) for each incident.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Are sub-national jurisdictions permitted to have smoke-free laws?
No
No
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
The materials and analysis available at this website are for informational and educational purposes only and not for the purpose of providing legal advice.